A total hip replacement - also called a hip arthroplasty- is an advanced surgical procedure that re-structures the hip joint region.
Under this procedure the head of the femur (the bone that extends from the hip to the knee) is removed along with the surface layer of the socket in the pelvis (the two large bones that rest on the lower limbs and support the spinal column).
The head of the femur bone, which is situated within the pelvis socket, is replaced with a metal ball and stem. This stem fits into the shaft of the femur.
This socket is then replaced with a plastic or a metal and plastic cup.
Hip replacement is indicated where conservative management has failed. Worldwide, more than 1 million hips are replaced annually. With careful patient selection and meticulous surgical technique, good long term results occur in over 90% of cases.
The surgical procedure
At the time of surgery, once the hip joint is exposed, the head and neck of the femur are removed. The shaft of the femur is then adjusted to accept the metal component consisting of the head, neck, and stem. After fixing the plastic cup the ball and socket are then replaced into normal position. Both of these implants can be fastened into the bone with or without using the special cement.
The cemented procedure utilizes a doughy substance mixed at the time of surgery that is introduced between the artificial component and the bone. This type of fixation in total hips remains the gold standard and is the method of choice for many surgeons. Depending upon their health and bone density, people over the age of 60 will receive this type of joint fixation.
Despite its common use, not all individuals are candidates for a cemented hip. Studies show that young active adults tend to loosen their artificial components prematurely. The current trend therefore, is to use an artificial joint covered with a material that allows bone tissue to grow into the metal. A tight bond of scar tissue if formed, which anchors the metal to the bone. This is called a cementless total hip replacement.
Some other orthopaedic procedures:
Slipped disc treatment
Total knee replacement
Total Hip replacement
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